Keeping you informed on Site C: the six court challenges

a terrific site. I give it an A… Whoever gave it a C is nuts!!!

Keep the Peace Blog

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Dear Friends,

We hope you are entering 2015 with the excitement and anticipation of knowing that 2015 is the year that we will put a stop to Site C for good!

Despite the fact that just before Christmas the BC government announced they intend to proceed with Site C, we are confident that it will not come to fruition as six court challenges have been launched against it!

As such, we thought you would appreciate some information on what these court cases are about. We think you’ll agree that they look very solid and have the potential not only to stop Site C, but also to set important precedent for the future of BC and Canada.

The court challenges are about: holding the federal and provincial governments accountable for the decision making processes that they designed and didn’t follow; and, protecting treaty rights, which have already been seriously eroded due…

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The Empty Chair

By Susan Musgrave and Friends
Posted December 12, 2014

 

 

HARPER EMPTY CHAIR

Susan Musgrave
Original 4 December at 23:02 ·

You, George Payerle, Robert Priest, Beth Appeldoorn and 39 others like this.
11 shares

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The Empty Chair

The Empty Chair

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Joan M. Baril Click on edit, then crop. Play around with the sliding lines. That is my advice here.
5 December at 06:07 · Like

Ingrid Philipp She looks so miserable
5 December at 06:17 · Like · 1

Dave Godfrey send it to the new yorker for their contest: best caption for this cartoon…
5 December at 06:19 · Like · 5

Mary Baker Susan, you have some very funny and clever Facebook friends! Still smiling at the comments…grimly.
5 December at 06:24 · Unlike · 1

Ian Gray Thanks John Oughton, I just quoted you as I shared this image.
5 December at 06:25 · Like · 1

Ingrid Philipp http://www.theglobeandmail.com/…/new…/article21966178/

New Jersey governor Chris Christie to meet Harper, lay wreath at National War…
THEGLOBEANDMAIL.COM
5 December at 06:29 · Like

Meredith Egan Ingrid, she’s unhappy because Mr. Harper vetoed her other lover in the picture. I know who she’s lovin’ this Christmas…
5 December at 07:00 · Like

Barbara Hunt Thanks for the chuckles
5 December at 07:03 · Like

Ingrid Philipp We all know the rumour. I’m just focussing on the picture itself. The house looks unloved in. A real family would have a fire in the fireplace.
5 December at 07:04 · Like · 2

Andréa Ledding Maurice the beauty of your statement is that I’ve often thought of Elijah Harper (now deceased) and once asked him how he felt sharing a last name with Stephen…Susan Musgrave you always have superlative posts & comments but today this is one of my favourites and I have to tag two people b.c they didn’t believe me when we were in Ottawa Declan & Jonah read the comments: EVERYONE. KNOWS. #NotARumourIfTrue
5 December at 07:16 · Like

Donna Allard maybe it is a studio and not their home?
5 December at 07:20 · Like

Donna Allard certainly not a christmas photo..
5 December at 07:22 · Like

Ingrid Philipp Just noticed how my post said “unloved in” rather than un-lived (damn autocorrect)
5 December at 07:23 · Like · 1

Laurie Anne Fuhr Here I thought they were getting behind PEN.
5 December at 08:15 · Like

Johnny Pigeau That’s where the LOVE is.
5 December at 08:16 · Like · 1

Wendy Leslie The Stepford family.
5 December at 08:22 · Like

Jamie Reid It’s reserved for Harper the Wrecker’s silent partner, the one who really gives the marching orders.
5 December at 08:23 · Like

Michael Dennis She doesn’t look happy at all.
5 December at 08:29 · Like

Laurie Anne Fuhr I’m envious of their fancy stash box with a map of the world to show you where your pot came from. What money can buy. Can probably fit a few pounds in that sucker.
5 December at 08:39 · Like

Laurie Anne Fuhr Weird how they matched the painting to the urn though. The painting is so ugly it’s like a parody of the urn. “Hey look at me urn, I’m wearing your colours but I’m way bigger.” “Up yours, painting.”
5 December at 08:42 · Like · 4

Tina M Ooishi I think it is for the family ghost!
5 December at 09:16 · Like

Liz Maxwell Forbes it certainly isn’t a happy family photo..all of them look repressed…definitely lacking in inner joy…it is an odd publicity shot…the empty chair is weird.
5 December at 09:17 · Like · 3

James Poupore Mrs.Harper looks despondent.
5 December at 10:42 · Edited · Like

Laurie Anne Fuhr If I was the son I’d be the most non-chuffed… “It’s hard enough at school that my dad’s the most despised criminal PM of all time — do I *have* to wear a lilac-coloured sweater? And match my little sister?”. Poor bastard should be on suicide watch.
5 December at 10:41 · Like · 2

Laurie Anne Fuhr Harper’s Christmas tie makes him look rather Liberal. I bet he’d rather have a Blue Christmas despite all the bad PR from Elvis.
5 December at 10:42 · Like

Jamie Reid Maybe the silent partner is the Invisible Hand of the Market.
5 December at 10:51 · Like · 2

Judith Renaud Satire is bizarre at the best of times, maybe it’s Harper’s invisible friend.
5 December at 10:52 · Like

Joan Walter His late finance minister- what’s his name, who died last year. Could be him.
5 December at 11:08 · Like

Mac Farrant The urn needs to be on the chair.
5 December at 11:24 · Like · 2

David Berian Hopper The urn on the left is filled with the ashes of dead scientists
5 December at 13:08 · Like · 1

Leslie Mcbain Steve looks like he is photoshopped in. Weirdness
5 December at 13:40 · Like

Mel Sarnese Young Ben is a classmate of my daughter at University–no security around him. He seems to be a well-adjusted teenager with many friends.
5 December at 13:58 · Unlike · 1

Olya Marko Mrs. Harpers has got those knees tightly clasped.
5 December at 17:11 · Like

Bill Code he saves it for Jesus. The Idiot.
5 December at 17:26 · Edited · Like · 2

Dave Godfrey UNLOVED IN sounds fitting also….although the kids look ok, especially the daughter–the other smiles all seemed so forced…
5 December at 17:28 · Like · 1

Ingrid Philipp Perhaps the chair is for sale to the highest bidder?
5 December at 18:38 · Like

Buck Dornster I’m seeing strange faces in the fireplace… anyone else?
5 December at 19:24 · Unlike · 2

Douglas Mackenzie Come on Mr. Code please don’t link the idiot with J.C. Kinda soils the cloth.
5 December at 19:58 · Unlike · 1

Olya Marko church and state — separate hammocks.
5 December at 20:01 · Unlike · 1

Dave Godfrey it’s for you, the prodigal, the wastral, the lost. We’re just waiting for you to return to Jesus and Das Kapital; to give up your errant, hippy, owl-hugging, river-running, grizzly loving, Orca-riding ways and come to Ottawa and live this friggin’suffocating life we’re determined to pretend we enjoy…..
5 December at 20:06 · Edited · Unlike · 1

Robert Hilles Yes!
5 December at 22:28 · Unlike · 1

Robert Arnold His wife is not smiling! In fact she looks mad.
6 December at 01:41 · Unlike · 3

Olya Marko The son is practically hiding his face.
6 December at 10:04 · Unlike · 1

Fergus Hearne It’s the cat’s chair!
6 December at 15:53 · Unlike · 1

Sharon McKay The Ghost of Christmas?
6 December at 17:11 · Like

Matthew Henley and they all look so cuddly
6 December at 22:03 · Like

David Young Gitche Manitou
Yesterday at 10:17 · Like

Olya Marko In my old community of Point Douglas, we would use the word ‘gotch’.
Yesterday at 10:21 · Like

Sonia Elisabetta Di Placido How very creamy & white
Yesterday at 12:49 · Like · 1

Michael Boughn Actually, however hard he tries to look cuddly, Harper always looks like he is restraining himself from eating your liver . . .
Yesterday at 14:10 · Like · 1

Bruce Meyer The empty chair is a tribute to the science research that won’t be done this year, to the artists who do more than sing questionable Guns and Roses songs and play a little piano, and to the countless civil servants who used to work for the Canadian gov…See More
1 hr · Unlike · 6

Olya Marko There’s such a feeling of despair. I appreciate your comments, Bruce Meyer.
1 hr · Edited · Like

Stephen Reid Well said Bruce.
33 mins · Like

Ruth Meta Maybe the chair is for the next time his son has a drunken party and a 15 year old has to go to the hospital with alcohol poisoning… she can rest there till the ambulance arrives…of course, we never heard much more about that, did we!
27 mins · Like · 1

Revival of ancient barley variety thrills fans of old beer styles

Excellentr summary

Zythophile

Chevallier b arley Chevallier barley, revived after seven decades

In a move that has thrilled beer style revivalists, a beer has been brewed from what was Victorian Britain’s most popular barley variety for the first time in at least 70 years.

What is most interesting for historians of brewing is the way the revived malt acts when used to make beer, putting a new slant on the interpretation of old beer recipes, suggesting they produced beers using the ingredients available at the time that were both fuller in the mouth and less bitter than the same recipes using modern malts, and also beers that needed longer to mature than those made using modern malts do.

The new-old beer, a nut-brown bitter ale made using Chevallier barley, which once went into the vast majority of pints sold in Britain, will be on sale at the Duke of Wellington pub on Waterloo Road, Norwich this…

View original post 1,880 more words

Farewell Concrete

Here are some great ideas for getting free of our reliance on concrete-an industrial process which creates a great deal of CO2 pollution. Fly ash from gassification is one of these ideas.

Would you live in a house made of sand and bacteria? It’s a surprisingly good idea

<strong>Had enough of concrete blocks?</strong> The hugely useful (but harmfully polluting) material responsible for the rise and rise of the modern city can no longer claim to be the only material available to architects.

Had enough of concrete blocks? The hugely useful (but harmfully polluting) material responsible for the rise and rise of the modern city can no longer claim to be the only material available to architects.

Edinburgh College of Art student Peter Trimble has created a possible solution using little more than sand and urea. <strong><a href='http://petertrimble.co.uk/microbial-manufacture' target='_blank'>Dupe</a></strong> is almost as structurally strong as concrete but produces no greenhouse gasses. Trimble's system is not yet ready for production, but similar concrete alternatives are already available to builders...

Edinburgh College of Art student Peter Trimble has created a possible solution using little more than sand and urea. Dupe is almost as structurally strong as concrete but produces no greenhouse gasses. Trimble’s system is not yet ready for production, but similar concrete alternatives are already available to builders…

Builders laying the concrete foundations of the Wilshire Grand Tower -- the skyscraper set to become Los Angeles' tallest building -- <a href='http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20140217005645/en/Headwaters-Fly-Ash-Record-Setting-Los-Angeles#.UyhZevl_uDl' target='_blank'>substituted a quarter of the cement </a>with
Fly Ash” The waste ash from coal combustion at power plants in Utah and Arizona increases the durability of concrete while offsetting the CO2 cost of cement production.

Builders laying the concrete foundations of the Wilshire Grand Tower — the skyscraper set to become Los Angeles’ tallest building — substituted a quarter of the cement with “Fly Ash” The waste ash from coal combustion at power plants in Utah and Arizona increases the durability of concrete while offsetting the CO2 cost of cement production.

Japanese firm TIS & Partners have created a new building material called “CO2 Structure,” dreamed-up in the aftermath of the March 2011 Japanese Tsunami as an emergency rebuilding material than can be put in place quicker than slow-drying concrete. By injecting carbon dioxide into a silica (sand and quartz), they managed to developed a carbon-negative building material with twice the tensile strength of brick.

Natural building materials are a popular choice for those looking to cut CO2 emissions. Making bricks from hemp results in a net decrease in carbon dioxide levels, as the growing plant takes in CO2. These bricks are made of hemp combined with clay, while <strong><a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/10/hempcrete-hemp-house_n_1506662.html' target='_blank'>Hempcrete</a></strong> (a mixture of hemp and lime) is sold internationally as a thermal walling material.

Natural building materials are a popular choice for those looking to cut CO2 emissions. Making bricks from hemp results in a net decrease in carbon dioxide levels, as the growing plant takes in CO2. These bricks are made of hemp combined with clay, while Hempcrete (a mixture of hemp and lime) is sold internationally as a thermal walling material.

<strong><a href='http://www.ecovativedesign.com/' target='_blank'>Ecovative</a></strong><strong> </strong>already make packaging from agricultural waste and mushroom

Ecovative is already make packaging from agricultural waste and mushroom “mycelium” — and their next project is building materials. Founder Eben Bayer describes mycelium as “essentially the ‘roots’ of mushrooms” and says it is very good at binding together organic materials, which could one day make building blocks.

Another natural material with carbon negative production: lowly straw is making a return to construction. In America's
Straw bales are used as a both a structural and insulating material. Companies such as UK’s ModCell manufacture pre-fabricated wall and roof panels from straw.

Another natural material with carbon negative production: lowly straw is making a return to construction. In America’s “Nebraska Method” homes, straw bales are used as a both a structural and insulating material. Companies such as UK’s ModCell manufacture pre-fabricated wall and roof panels from straw.

Traditional building materials such as mud and <strong><a href='http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2513154/Farmer-builds-house-just-150-using-materials-skips--current-tenant-pays-rent-MILK.html' target='_blank'>cob</a></strong> -- a mixture of sand, clay, straw and earth -- have been proposed as a non-polluting alternative building material for small buildings, such as households. One <a href='http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/greenerliving/10478442/Michael-Bucks-cob-house-Does-the-answer-to-the-housing-crisis-lie-within-a-150-cottage.html' target='_blank'>man from Oxford</a>, UK claims to have built a Hobbit-like home from cob for less than $250.

Traditional building materials such as mud and cob — a mixture of sand, clay, straw and earth — have been proposed as a non-polluting alternative building material for small buildings, such as households. One man from Oxford, UK claims to have built a Hobbit-like home from cob for less than $250.

Recycled materials are making up an increasing part of building blocks. <strong><a href='http://www.aggregate.com/products-and-services/blocks/enviroblock/' target='_blank'>Enviroblocks</a></strong> are made from over 70% recycled aggregates, bound with cement, while <strong><a href='http://www.durisol.net/pdfs/Durisol%20Flyer.pdf' target='_blank'>Durisol</a></strong> units contain 80% recycled woodchip, which is wrapped around steel bars for strength.

Recycled materials are making up an increasing part of building blocks.Enviroblocks are made from over 70% recycled aggregates, bound with cement, while Durisol units contain 80% recycled woodchip, which is wrapped around steel bars for strength.

Clay blocks with

Clay blocks with “honeycomb” structured cross-sections — often known asZiegel Blocks — have been common in some parts of Europe for decades, but are now spreading far beyond. Manufacturing blocks from clay rather than concrete means less CO2 emissions from production, while the blocks insulating characteristics can cut a building’s energy costs.

Cutting concrete pollution could mean rethinking our approach to construction from start to finish. Housing made from recycled <strong><a href='http://www.gizmag.com/infiniski-shipping-container-architecture/22365/' target='_blank'>shipping containers</a></strong> has popped up all over the world and provides one low-cost, low-emission solution. Are there others?

Cutting concrete pollution could mean rethinking our approach to construction from start to finish. Housing made from recycled shipping containers has popped up all over the world and provides one low-cost, low-emission solution. Are there others?

— Peter Trimble found his formula through trial and error. A design student at the University of Edinburgh, he was aiming to produce an artistic exhibition for a module on sustainability, when he stumbled on “Dupe,” a living alternative to concrete.

A lab technician introduced Trimble to Sporosarcina pasteurii, a bacterium with binding qualities, sometimes used to solidify soil to hold road signs in place. The student tested it with one of the world’s most abundant resources – sand. Pumping bacterial solution into a sand-filled mould, he added nutrients, urea derived from urine as fertilizer and calcium. After a year, and hundreds of failed experiments, this process manufactured a stool around 70% the compression strength of concrete.

The process requires less than one-sixth of the energy used in concrete production, and is completely biodegradable. Crucially, Trimble believes his mechanism has the added benefit that it could be employed by anyone, anywhere.

“Once you have the basic framework it should be transferable. Imagine a Tsunami-hit farm in Indonesia that is not getting supplies. You could use sand and bacteria on site, practically free, and have shelter housing that is far more permanent.”

Trimble is working with NGOs to apply Dupe to Aboriginal settlements and insecure regions of Morocco. But while the applications are new and experimental, the concept of growing the material for our built environment is increasingly regarded as not merely interesting, but essential.

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the construction industry accounts for 40% of the world’s C02 emissions, 40% of U.S. landfill and has been uniquely resistant to change. Concrete, bricks and cement have remained the dominant materials since the industrial revolution in the early 19th century, and as pressure mounts on resources and climate, scientists and architects are looking to the natural world for solutions.

Buildingbacteria

Bacteria have been at the center of alternative methods. North Carolina start-upBiomason is growing bricks on an industrial scale, cultivated from sand by microorganisms. The company has won major prizes and funding for the bricks, which will be used in a structure for the first time this year in a pedestrian walkway, ahead of building projects across the world.

Similar processes are being developed to build in the most challenging environments. British architects see an opportunity to cultivate new life in deserts, while NASA believe bacteria could allow the construction of bases on other planets without the headache of ferrying the material there.

While bacterial processes save heavily on carbon, there are concerns that by-products could be poisonous. But another living brick — made from mushrooms — has no such problems.

Functional fungus

New York firm Ecovative are producing materials that combine agricultural waste products such as corn stock with mushroom mycelium — the roots of the vegetable. Over five days the mycelium binds the waste to create a block with a stronger compressive strength than concrete, with none of the heat or energy required by regular bricks.

The product is in commercial use for packaging, producing thousands of units a month, and the company is expanding into construction. Ecovative believe that in addition to being renewable and decomposable, natural properties give them a performance advantage.

“It has great insulation properties”, says Sam Harrington, Ecovative Director of Sustainability. “A key benefit is flame resistance — without adding any chemicals we were able to achieve a Class A fire rating”.

There is scope for development. Mycelium effectively dies once its growth is complete, but Harrington is looking ahead to material that does not. “We are exploring ideas of living materials, perhaps that are self-healing or respond to leaks with indicators.”

Ecovative are in dialogue with major construction companies, and the material will soon be tested on a historic scale. A collaboration with architects The Living won the prestigious MOMA (Museum of Modern Art) PS-1 competition, and their creation will be installed in the museum courtyard this summer.

Growing for gold

“Hy-Fi” will be the largest ever grown structure, and first large building to claim zero carbon emissions. It will be formed of three 40-foot spiral towers constructed from the mushroom material, with varying properties of brick to maximise light and ventilation.

The material’s versatility offers unique design opportunities, says David Benjamin, lead architect of the project.

“You can dial in almost any performance you want. You can mix and match a variety of properties such as water resistance or UV resistance, lightness or durability. You can grow the bricks in almost any shape”

Benjamin says the bio-bricks could be made to last as long as traditional materials, but believes architecture must embrace temporary structures.

“It’s essential to recognize that not all materials should last for centuries. A lot of the steel in our buildings will last longer than we need. Our idea is a building that be made locally and quickly, and then have a plan for when the life of the building is over.”

Future applications would include pop-up stores, festival “tents” and emergency shelters, says Benjamin, but there are greater hopes for the material within the industry.

Stronger than concrete

“I could imagine every structure you would built out of bricks”, says Dirk Hebel, Assistant Professor of Architecture and Construction at the Future Cities Laboratory in Singapore. “No high-rises, but smaller scale structures and houses. The material is stronger than concrete, with better insulation capacities”.

The challenge will come in commercializing the products, Hebel feels. “There is huge demand for alternative materials. The question is how easy it is to penetrate the existing market. This needs time and a couple of buildings to show the possibilities”.

Stealing from nature

Another, more radical approach takes the material from nature but also allows it to build the structure. Michael Pawlyn, director of Exploration Architecture, is a leading figure in biomimicry, having previously applied natural processes to create man-made forests in England and the Sahara Desert. His latest project to grow a “small venue for spoken word performances” from undersea biorock was recently unveiled at the Architecture Foundation in London.

“In biology, complex structures achieve resource efficiency by putting things in exactly the right place, which is very difficult with made materials”, says Pawlyn. “Our ways should deliver significant resource savings.”

Drawing on the natural accumulation of coral reefs, his team would install a steel frame in the deep ocean and leave it to attract material. Growth would be focused on specific areas of need using an electrical current.

“We’re interested in looking at its structural growth patterns. We have stress gauges on the structure to measure force in particular areas. If one is highly stressed, we can input more current so the rate of deposition matches the force.”

Pawlyn believes the structure could be built within two years, for consideration at scale. As with Ecovative, a key challenge ahead is to integrate still-living material to allow intelligent biosensors that respond to the building occupants.

Innovators in this space acknowledge the ongoing barriers presented in an industry that has resisted modernization. But from rock to fungus, sand to space dust, the use of materials and processes designed by nature herself offer both a solution to the sustainability crisis, and a glimpse of our new built environment: clean, efficient, and alive.

Manure Gasification

Gasification is quite distinct from anaerobic digestion. This short post explains the former in terms of dairy or beef farm manure. There is traditional gasification (around for over 100 years) and plasma arc gasification.

biochar is a by product that can be rich in nutrients:

A more welcome surprise came for Josh Frye when he was introduced to the concept of biochar by Tom Basden, an extension specialist in nutrient management at West Virginia University. “Tom told me I would end up growing chickens mainly for the poop,” Josh said. “I thought he was off his rocker, but now I think he might be right on the money.”

Josh is now producing a high quality biochar and has sold his first ton at a net price of $480 ($600 a ton for the char and $120 a ton transport costs) to a farmer in New Jersey who is testing its qualities for his crop of corn and soybeans.  A farm in South Carolina is testing the char on pharmaceutical grapes (used in the nutritional supplement industry). Josh worked with IBI board members Johannes Lehmann and Stephen Joseph to optimize the gasifier to produce quality biochar rich in phosphorous and potassium. His test burns so far have made biochar that ranges from 1.7 to 3.2 percent P and 5.4 to 9.6 percent K.

Th800px-Adler_Diplomat_3_GS_mit_Holzgasgenerator-hinten_rechtse Stirling engine.

COALTEC

http://www.coaltecenergy.com/biochar/

Biochar is retained in the soil over many hundreds and even thousands of years, unlike fertilizers which typically require annual application. The “black earth”, or Terra Preta, of the Amazon Rain Forest is noted world-wide as being one of the most fertile soils, yet was actually a very poor soil enriched with biochar material. The market for biochar is currently being developed.  It is valuable commercially for fertilizing soil, and is used to mitigate climate change through the sequestering of atmospheric carbon dioxide.  Biochar is an ideal amendment to increase crop yields in most soil types.

Biochar also has a variety of other uses, including animal feed supplements and use as a water filtration medium. Extensive research has been done in both applications, with a small amount of biochar being sold for these uses.  Research continues towards these and other applications.

Cow Manure as an Economical Energy Source

The dairy industry is globally under pressure from increasing environmental regulations, falling prices, as well as very aggressive foreign competition. Manure management and electrical costs are one area dairymen can look to cut costs. The current market for all agriculture is under high pressure from increasing regulation, falling prices, as well as very aggressive foreign competition. The current EU administration is trying to pass new environmental laws and regulations. At the same time trying to reduce government subsidies, it is determined to push through stricter regulations using the regulatory government agencies.

The dairy industry in particular is facing new challenges with low milk prices that have started to incline but with feed costs currently on the rise dairymen still are challenged to break even. This has meant that dairy farmers have had to borrow more money to maintain their herds while at the same time increasing the breakeven point they must get for their milk now and in the future. Dairy farms must become more efficient. Dairy farmers must find ecological and economical solutions to ever increasing environmental regulations while at the same time lowering their costs of production.

Successful dairy farmers often own multiple farms; while this is often successful it is not always the most effective solution. Adding more animals at the same location should be more efficient as well as cost effective. Generally availability of land and manure management is the limiting factors. Increasingly waste management is a major factor and concern of dairy farmers. Fines, threats, and an ever-increasing regulatory burden take more of our time, energy and money. How can dairies increase the point at which their operation is profitable?

Energy costs will continue to go up and costs are dictated to the user by third parties of which we have no control over. Additionally handling of waste material and increasing regulation is another high cost that shows no indication of going down. One possible method of increasing efficiency is to use manure, and waste feed to produce the electrical needs of the farm. Capturing solids before they go to the lagoons, and send all the waste to a boiler specifically designed and tested to burn high moisture waste. This system can provide electricity, heat and hot water.

Plasma arc gasification is a new form of technology that turns biomass into plasma at extremely high temperatures. The basic requirements for a plasma arc gasification system involve a sealed vessel that is filled with a stable gas. The gas can be either nitrogen or, even ordinary air. Then a high-volt current is passed between two electrodes creating an electric arc that pull electrons from the air (Plasma arc & Gasification).

This high voltage impact converts the gas into plasma. The current flows through this newly formed plasma, creating a field of high energy that is extremely powerful and is compared to the equivalent of lightening. The energy of the plasma arc is so powerful; it can turn trash, biomass, and basically anything into its basic elements by tearing apart their molecular bonds. With the plasma process toxins and odor substances are immobilized in-situ environmentally friendly.

What is left behind after biomass is passes through this plasma gasification process is a volcanic-like glass. This glass can be used as a raw material for several applications that range from bathroom tiles to an asphalt like product.  Another beneficial by-product that is created during this process is a syn-gas much like the gas created from older forms of biomass gasification. It is a mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide that can be converted into several types of useful fuels. Some of these fuels include ethanol, natural gas and hydrogen. A big bonus of this system is that it is self-sustaining. It requires only the initial high volt current to start the cycle after that it produces its own electricity to create the electric arc, even if there is a blackout power outage.

To produce electricity this system much like other methods of cogeneration, relies on heating water to generate steam and in turn spin a turbine that drives an electric generator. At the current time this technology is mainly targeting the landfill waste segment. Our society is pushing towards more environmentally friendly technologies and this certainly is one. This technology has the ability of taking otherwise useless landfill waste and creating electricity at the same time slowing the growth of landfills and the pollution we leave behind. If they could extremely scale this back and reduce the equipment costs then it could be a possibility for the dairy industry in the future.

Manure production is a key factor for determining just how much electricity could potentially be generated. Average milk production per cow has increased 70% from 4,500 kg/cow/year in 1971 to nearly 7,300 kg/cow/year in 2000, resulting in changes in manure production.

A cow produces 14 pounds of manure on a dry matter basis for lactating cows. Electrical production is the cornerstone for this project. 1 British thermal unit (BTU) requires 6lbs of manure to be gasified. To convert BTU’s to kilowatts of electricity there is a factor of .00029. This means that 3,448 lbs of manure at 55% moisture are required to produce one kilowatt of electricity. The project is in the preliminary stage and is planning a design that will have the capacity to burn 3,000 lbs per hour.

Biomass gasification has many promising attributes for the dairy industry. It can produce electrical needs for a dairy operation in an environmentally friendly manner, while utilizing a renewable fuel source. Another financial benefit is that any excess energy could possibly be sold back to the power grid to generate extra revenues. Biomass gasification also produces a beneficial by-product for any dairy operation that farms.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochar

EXAMPLE

Chicken Manure (Frye Poultry)

Frye Poultry gasifier

Frye Poultry gasifier

Frye Poultry Farm
Wardensville, West Virginia

West Virginia Department of Environmental Quality features Coaltec’s Frye Poultry chicken litter gasification project in their InDEPth newsletter. Scroll to pages 4 and 5 of the PDF version of this article here.

West Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Air Quality, features Coaltec’s Frye Poultry gasification project in their Clean Air Forum. Scroll to page 7 of the PDF version for the full article here.

Gasifier at Frye Poultry

Gasifier at Frye Poultry

Located at Frye Poultry Farm, Hardy County West Virginia, this demonstration project has shown that chicken litter can successfully be gasified to provide a bio-based heating system. The project compared, side-by-side, a typically-heated poultry house and a poultry house heated with hot air out of a gasifier with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The focus of the project was to prove the feasibility and economic viability of a bio-based fuel-to-energy system utilizing poultry litter as the fuel and a fixed-bed gasifier as the medium to convert the material to energy. The project is the culmination of advanced-stage research and development work for a poultry system, and included commissioning, evaluation, and field testing of a gasification system specifically designed for the poultry industry.

Inside Frye Poultry barn

Inside Frye Poultry barn

On March 19, 2007 the gasifier was delivered to the Frye Poultry site. By the end of that same day the modular system was in place and ready for coupling to the ducting system. On day two the propane and electrical work were in progress. On day three the system was operating to cure the refractory. The was done by a six man crew with the assistance of a crane and crane operator. A sock air distribution system was installed with outstanding results; the ambient air temperature throughout the house having no more than a two degree differential.

The controls in the house are completely secured and the system is operational with birds in the house. Additionally it was operated between flocks to dry the manure pack on the floor and to preheat the house to improve the environment for new birds coming in. The fuel feed iscompletely automated and the system changes as fuel quality and energy needs change. The system has been operated utilizing both local controls as well as with monitoring from Indiana and Canada through the remote web-based access system.

Frye Litter Shed

Frye Litter Shed

The operation of the gasifier has a definite positive impact on the bird growth and health. The humidity level in the house is lower – over 20% less, and the bird’s growth was as much as 7% higher. The propane use is obviously lower as the gasifier is providing the energy for replacement heat.

The owner installed a litter shed to improve the quality of both the fuel feed and the resulting biochar.

As the system is used, a variety of unexpected benefits have been discovered: The ash as a fertilizer supplement has substantial value. It may also be beneficial as a feed supplement to replace dicalcium phosphate. Research work to determine this will be a part of Phase 2 of the project.

The Chicago Nanny

GREAT shots from the fifties and sixties.  Thousands of negatives bought for $386.00. A smart buyer and knew a treasure when he found it.

an Buys 10.000 Undeveloped Negatives At a Local Auction and Discovers One of The Most Important Street Photographers of the Mid 20th Centuury.

 

an Buys 10.000 Undeveloped Negatives At a Local Auction and Discovers One of The Most Important Street Photographers of the Mid 20th Century

Oct 30, 2013

0 52605

Imagine this : perhaps the most important street photographer of the twentieth century was a nanny who kept everything to herself. Nobody had ever seen her work and she was a complete unknown until the time of her death. For decades Vivian’s work hid in the shadows until decades later (in 2007), historical hobbyist John Maloof bought a box full of never developed negatives at a local auction for $380.

street photography 001

John began to develop the negatives and it didn’t take long before he realised that these were no ordinary street snapshots from the 50′s and 60′s — these pictures were a lot more then that. Maier’s work is particularly evocative for those who grew up in the 50′s and 60′s because she seemed to stare deep into the soul of the time and preserve the everyday experience of the people. She ventured outside the comfortable homes and picturesque residential neighborhoods of her employers to document all segments of life in and around the big city.

street photography 002

street photography 003

street photography 004

street photography 006

street photography 007

vivian maier

He embarked on a journey to find the legend who took these beautiful pictures and he quickly discovered her name: Vivian Maier.

street photography 005

Here’s a self-portrait of Vivian

Before he could find her, John discovered  her obituary in the newspaper of 2009 . She slipped on ice, suffered a head injury and never fully recovered. She was 83 years old when she passed away.

Since then, the work of this mysterious and incredibly talented woman has turned the art world upside down. The pictures gained international media attention with exhibitions in London, New York , Los Angeles , Oslo and Hamburg.

John has also made ​​a documentary about Vivian and her work  – you can check out the trailer below. Wow! What an incredible story and what an inspiration.

Uncategorized
Oct 30, 2013
0 52605

Imagine this : perhaps the most important street photographer of the twentieth century was a nanny who kept everything to herself. Nobody had ever seen her work and she was a complete unknown until the time of her death. For decades Vivian’s work hid in the shadows until decades later (in 2007), historical hobbyist John Maloof bought a box full of never developed negatives at a local auction for $380.

an Buys 10.000 Undeveloped Negatives At a Local Auction and Discovers One of The Most Important Street Photographers of the Mid 20th Century

Oct 30, 2013

0 52605

Imagine this : perhaps the most important street photographer of the twentieth century was a nanny who kept everything to herself. Nobody had ever seen her work and she was a complete unknown until the time of her death. For decades Vivian’s work hid in the shadows until decades later (in 2007), historical hobbyist John Maloof bought a box full of never developed negatives at a local auction for $380.

street photography 001

John began to develop the negatives and it didn’t take long before he realised that these were no ordinary street snapshots from the 50′s and 60′s — these pictures were a lot more then that. Maier’s work is particularly evocative for those who grew up in the 50′s and 60′s because she seemed to stare deep into the soul of the time and preserve the everyday experience of the people. She ventured outside the comfortable homes and picturesque residential neighborhoods of her employers to document all segments of life in and around the big city.

street photography 002

street photography 003

street photography 004

street photography 006

street photography 007

vivian maier

He embarked on a journey to find the legend who took these beautiful pictures and he quickly discovered her name: Vivian Maier.

street photography 005

Here’s a self-portrait of Vivian

Before he could find her, John discovered  her obituary in the newspaper of 2009 . She slipped on ice, suffered a head injury and never fully recovered. She was 83 years old when she passed away.

Since then, the work of this mysterious and incredibly talented woman has turned the art world upside down. The pictures gained international media attention with exhibitions in London, New York , Los Angeles , Oslo and Hamburg.

John has also made ​​a documentary about Vivian and her work  – you can check out the trailer below. Wow! What an incredible story and what an inspiration.

street photography 001

John began to develop the negatives and it didn’t take long before he realised that these were no ordinary street snapshots from the 50′s and 60′s — these pictures were a lot more then that. Maier’s work is particularly evocative for those who grew up in the 50′s and 60′s because she seemed to stare deep into the soul of the time and preserve the everyday experience of the people. She ventured outside the comfortable homes and picturesque residential neighborhoods of her employers to document all segments of life in and around the big city.

street photography 002

street photography 003

street photography 004

street photography 006

street photography 007

vivian maier

He embarked on a journey to find the legend who took these beautiful pictures and he quickly discovered her name: Vivian Maier.

street photography 005
Here’s a self-portrait of Vivian

Before he could find her, John discovered her obituary in the newspaper of 2009 . She slipped on ice, suffered a head injury and never fully recovered. She was 83 years old when she passed away.

Since then, the work of this mysterious and incredibly talented woman has turned the art world upside down. The pictures gained international media attention with exhibitions in London, New York , Los Angeles , Oslo and Hamburg.

John has also made ​​a documentary about Vivian and her work – you can check out the trailer below. Wow! What an incredible story and what an inspiration.

Man Buys 10.000 Undeveloped Negatives At a Local Auction and Discovers One of The Most Important Street Photographers of the Mid 20th Century

Oct 30, 2013
0 52605

Imagine this : perhaps the most important street photographer of the twentieth century was a nanny who kept everything to herself. Nobody had ever seen her work and she was a complete unknown until the time of her death. For decades Vivian’s work hid in the shadows until decades later (in 2007), historical hobbyist John Maloof bought a box full of never developed negatives at a local auction for $380.

street photography 001

John began to develop the negatives and it didn’t take long before he realised that these were no ordinary street snapshots from the 50′s and 60′s — these pictures were a lot more then that. Maier’s work is particularly evocative for those who grew up in the 50′s and 60′s because she seemed to stare deep into the soul of the time and preserve the everyday experience of the people. She ventured outside the comfortable homes and picturesque residential neighborhoods of her employers to document all segments of life in and around the big city.
xa>

street photography 003

street photography 004

street photography 006

street photography 007

vivian maier

He embarked on a journey to find the legend who took these beautiful pictures and he quickly discovered her name: Vivian Maier.

street photography 005

Here’s a self-portrait of Vivian

Before he could find her, John discovered  her obituary in the newspaper of 2009 . She slipped on ice, suffered a head injury and never fully recovered. She was 83 years old when she passed away.

Since then, the work of this mysterious and incredibly talented woman has turned the art world upside down. The pictures gained international media attention with exhibitions in London, New York , Los Angeles , Oslo and Hamburg.

John has also made ​​a documentary about Vivian and her work  – you can check out the trailer below. Wow! What an incredible story and what an inspiration.

VI Sustainability

What socialists need to do in BC is to set Vancouver Island up as the alternate culture.

The 2013 Election shows that the Right will always win by accepting vey high levels of degradation of the environment as the price for jobs that permit very high levels of consumption, especially imported products such as cars, third world food products and luxury items.

As a result no government action in support of post-fossil energy sources or food security or full-employment can be expected.

Vancouver Island, through innovative policies, can have all of these.

There are many post-fossil-fuel innovations underway around the world. This part of the blog will catalogue and analyze many of those. It will look at the types and amounts of energy that islanders consume and set the bar for the elimination of at least 90% of fossil fuels within 20 years,

It will also analyze food consumption on the island and what part of the imported component can be replaced and what kinds of jobs that can create.

It will also look at the employment, non-employment and under-employment situation on the island and look at ways and means of moving towards not only full employment but an array of jobs that are stimulating and fulfilling. Crucial to that is developing sources of expertise that are local and localized. We need to stop hiring experts from International Firms to design and construct sewage plants in a fashion that is at once costly and out of date.

 

EXAMPLE:

WASTE INTO ENERGY

There’s an almost comical juxtaposition of glamour and grime in New York. The trendiest dessert spot and most expensive new boutique are often barricaded behind a bulging wall of trash bags, spilling onto the sidewalk. Designer perfume and decaying food notes mingle in the air together.

Fortunately for New Yorkers, obsessed with the newest and the best, enormous trucks routinely appear out of nowhere to rescue them from their banana peels, old sneakers and unwanted lamps. Within seconds the putrid black bag barricades are dismantled, stuffed out of sight in the back of the truck and disappear down the street, out of the city and across state lines. The vast majority of the city’s trash — 10,000 tons a day — ends up in Ohio, Delaware, Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Once the trash is properly out of sight and out of mind in a distant landfill, that’s the end of the story as far as most people are concerned. But while it might no longer be an immediate nuisance to a New Yorker, trash ‘lives’ on for decades in landfills and the methane produced from rotting organic matter, which accounts for one third of what gets thrown away, exacerbates climate change, impacting everyone on Earth.

The Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change recently increased its estimate of the global warming potential of methane to 34 times more powerful than carbon dioxide. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), landfills are the third largest source of methane in the nation. In landfills, food waste also adds an enormous amount of water to the decaying mess, which causes toxic chemicals to leach into the soil.

But what if there was a way to not only keep food waste out of landfills but actually create something valuable out of what otherwise produces only methane and contaminated soil? There is, and the technology has been around for decades.

Anaerobic digesters have been used on farms to help process manure for several years. An anaerobic digester is essentially just an airtight tank filled with a special mix of bacteria, similar to what you’d find in the stomach of a cow. In fact, Patrick Serfass, Executive Director at the American Biogass Council, likes to call anaerobic digesters “optimized cow stomachs.”

When organic waste is shoveled into the digester tanks, the bacteria devour the food and other scraps and produce a biogas, which is mostly methane. The biogas can be combusted to generate electricity and heat, or can be processed into natural gas and transportation fuels. Unlike natural gas from shale, the biogas produced through anaerobic digestion is completely renewable. The digestion process also results in separated solids that can be composted, used for dairy bedding, or just spread directly on fields as a fertilizer. Nutrients from the liquid stream can be used as fertilizers as well.

“Just like a cow, you get a solid, a liquid and a gas after digestion,” said Serfass.

Anaerobically digesting just 50 percent of the food waste generated each year in the U.S. would produce enough electricity to power 2.5 million homes for a year, according to the EPA. Cities across America are just beginning to wake up to the potential of anaerobic digesters as a means to manage waste and generate renewable energy. One of the biggest obstacles remains persuading or compelling people to keep their vegetable peelings and apple cores out of their trash cans.

“In the 80s and 90s Americans started to get serious about recycling,” said Eric Goldstein, a senior attorney with the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) in New York. “But that paper, glass, metal and plastic that we so carefully keep out of the trash can only accounts for about one third of the total waste stream. And because we don’t do it perfectly, we only actually keep about one quarter of our trash out of landfills. I don’t think most people realize that when they toss takeout in the trash they are contributing to climate change.”

Europe is far ahead of America in diverting food waste from the dump. The European Landfill Directive mandates that European Union member states reduce “biodegradable municipal waste” sent to landfills to 35 percent of 1995 quantities by 2016. As a result, 40 percent of waste in the EU is now composted or recycled. Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, and Germany now send less than three percent of their waste to landfills. Copenhagen stopped sending organic waste to landfills in 1990.

While the U.S. clearly still has a lot of catching up to do, municipal composting programs have been springing up across the country. Neil Seldman, senior staffer for the Waste to Wealth Program at the Institute for Local Self Reliance, estimates that there are about 150 U.S. cities, serving 1.2 million households, that now have local composting programs in place. The food waste disposal system that these composting programs put in place, is often the first step towards transitioning to an anaerobic digestion system. Even New York is getting serious about tackling the problem.

In February, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg called food waste the city’s “final recycling frontier” in his annual State of the City Address. The city has begun a two-year  pilot program for collecting organic material from the curbsides of several Staten Island neighborhoods, two high-rise apartment buildings in Manhattan, and about 100 schools in three boroughs. Should the two-year pilot succeed — with high participation rates and the diversion of significant tonnages — the program will roll out across the city and no longer be voluntary.

Other cities such as Portland, Seattle, San Antonio, and San Francisco have had city-wide composting programs in place for years.

In San Francisco, composting began with restaurants and grocery stores. Then in 2009, an ordinance made it mandatory for all residents to separate organic material for collection. The city collected its millionth ton of organic waste for composting last fall. Overall, 78 percent of San Francisco’s waste is now diverted from landfills.

While composting programs keeps food waste out of landfills and produces a natural fertilizer that returns nutrients to the soil, it has it’s limitations. Most of New York City’s compost or that of any other city, still has to be hauled across state lines — burning fuel all the way.

“You can’t locate a compost pile in Bryant Park,” said Seldman. “It may not smell as bad as a landfill, but it needs to be open air to work, so it can’t be in a residential neighborhood.”

For example, compost from New York City is often taken to a 20-acre site in Wilmington, Delaware. It’s hardly in a country field, but located between all the super highways, it isn’t right next to someone’s house either.

“Anaerobic digestion is going to just explode in the Northeast and Bay Area in the next few years,” predicted Seldman. “In these crowded urban areas, it costs at least one hundred dollars for every ton of trash you have hauled away. It just makes sense to deal with it locally and get value from your waste.”

Where the trend will be slower catching on is in areas where it is still relatively cheap to send everything to the dump. According to Seldman, in Texas and Georgia, the removal of a ton of trash is priced at just twenty dollars.

Some states, however, are leading the way by requiring all commercial generators of food waste, like grocery stores and restaurants, to send all their food waste to an organics recycling facility — a site for composting and anaerobic digestion. Vermont started the trend, passing legislation in the summer of 2012, and has since been followed by Connecticut last summer, Massachusetts this fall and now, New York State is just beginning to consider a similar move.

“The leadership of these states is a big deal,” explained Serfass. “Although the technology is straightforward, an anaerobic digester isn’t cheap to build. If we want companies to be willing to invest in the infrastructure, it certainly helps them to know that they will have a constant stream of food waste coming their way for years to come.”

Several cities, especially on the West Coast, are also out in front on the anaerobic digester trend. In January, the Sacramento BioDigester officially went online. The site currently converts 25 tons of food waste per day into various forms of renewable energy, including heat, electricity, and renewable natural gas. It also produces fertilizer and soil enhancements for California farms. The Sacramento BioDigestor, which is run by CleanWorld, is planning to add a second facility which will increase the daily food waste intake capacity to 100 tons or 40,000 tons per year.

One of the largest anaerobic digesters for food waste is about to go online in San Jose, California. The digester located near the southern tip of the San Francisco Bay was developed by Zero Waste Energy Development Company and has 16 massive digestion chambers, each with a capacity of 350 tons.  The digester site will continue to undergo development to expand in three phases over the next several years, with each phase capable of processing 90,000 tons of organic waste a year. When fully completed, it will be one of the largest plants in the world.

California utilities are required to buy 33 percent of their electricity from renewable sources by 2020 in accordance with the state’s Renewable Portfolio Standard. While wind and solar have generally been considered the primary sources for renewable energy, biogas generated through the anaerobic digestion of food waste would also count towards meeting the standard.

“Anaerobic digesters transform food waste from a climate liability to a tool we can use to fight climate change,” said Seldman. “And even if you’re not interested in climate change, it’s still a way to turn trash into money, which is something I think everyone could support.

 

 

 

Aquifers in BC

The original is a great PDF. But complex. This is only here in case they take down the original.

WHICH IS HERE: http://www.forrex.org/sites/default/files/publications/articles/Streamline_Vol13_No1_Art3.pdf

10 Streamline

Watershed Management Bulletin Vol. 13/No. 1 Fall 2009

Understanding the

Types of Aquifers in

the Canadian Cordillera

Hydrogeologic Region to

Better Manage and Protect

Groundwater

Mike Wei, Diana Allen, Alan Kohut, Steve Grasby, Kevin Ronneseth,

and Bob Turner

Peer-reviewed Synthesis Article

Introduction

G

roundwater is often viewed as

a mysterious and challenging

resource to manage as it is hidden

underground. Generally, the only

obvious sign of groundwater to the

public is water flowing from a spring

or from a well. Where and how the

groundwater got to the spring or

well and how much is available are

questions of interest when trying

to protect the resource. Extending

knowledge of groundwater and

aquifers

—permeable, water-bearing

geological formations or deposits that

transmit and store groundwater—to

communities and land and water

resource decision makers has been a

challenge in British Columbia because

of the general lack of comprehensive

studies in many areas. If similar types

of aquifers have similar characteristics,

it may be reasonable to extrapolate

knowledge from well-studied areas to

predict properties of a specific aquifer

where little is known. Although this

inferred knowledge does not replace

actual testing and assessment of the

local aquifer, it can be useful, as a first

step, to develop a working hypothesis

about the local aquifer, especially in

sparsely studied areas. This article

describes a system of categorizing

aquifers in the Canadian Cordillera

Hydrogeologic Region (first described

by Halstead [1967] and here referred

to as the “Region” or “Cordillera”)

based on general hydrogeological

characteristics (Figure 1). Categorizing

aquifers promotes increased general

knowledge and understanding of

the characteristics of local aquifers in

this Region, and thus supports the

management and protection of local

groundwater resources.

The Canadian Cordillera Hydrogeologic

Region occupies the

mountainous region that covers

much of British Columbia (except

the Peace River country), as well

as the Rocky Mountain foothills of

southwestern Alberta, the southern

part of the Yukon Territory, and

part of the Northwest Territories;

it is the westernmost of Canada’s

hydrogeologic regions (Figure 1;

Sharpe et al., in press). Aquifers in the

Region supply water to an estimated

1 million persons for drinking water,

as well as for irrigation, aquaculture,

and industrial processing needs. The

Region is physiographically diverse,

comprising massive mountain ranges,

highlands, foothills, plateaus, basins,

and lowlands, with a total relief of

over 4000 m (the greatest in Canada)

and covering over 1 million km

2. The

Region’s climate varies widely from

Mediterranean conditions along the

southwest coast to polar conditions

Figure 1. Hydrogeologic regions of Canada (Source: Rivera, in press; reproduced with

permission of the Geological Survey of Canada).

Streamline

Watershed Management Bulletin Vol. 13/No. 1 Fall 2009 11

Continued on page 12

at high mountain elevations and in

the north. Mean annual precipitation

generally decreases from west to

east across the Region (following the

general movement of the weather

fronts), ranging, for example, from

3306 mm at Tofino on the west coast

of Vancouver Island to 293 mm at

Kamloops and 472 mm at Banff,

Alberta. Annual precipitation also

generally increases with elevation due

to orographic effects.

Seasonal climatic variations control

the annual quantity and form of

precipitation, thereby affecting the

timing and amount of runoff to

streams and recharge to aquifers

in the Cordillera. Coastal areas

experience highest precipitation

during the winter months, with much

of it falling as rain, except at higher

elevations where it may fall as snow.

In these coastal areas, groundwater

recharge mostly occurs during the

winter months when the rate of

evaporation and transpiration are at

their seasonal lowest. Consequently,

the natural groundwater levels in

coastal areas show a seasonal high

during winter or early spring, and

decline from spring to late fall (see

Figure 2a). In contrast, interior areas

have their highest precipitation

during the summer months, but

much of this is evaporated or

transpired and does not normally

contribute to groundwater recharge.

In the interior, snow accumulations

during the winter months, and at

higher elevations, are important for

recharge during the spring and early

summer when snowmelt occurs.

Thus, groundwater levels in the

interior generally are at a seasonal

high in late spring or early summer

and then decline over the summer

and early fall. The groundwater level

generally reaches a seasonal low

during the winter months, when

precipitation at the land surface is

frozen (see Figure 2b).

Glacial history, surficial and bedrock

geology, and tectonic history

greatly influence the occurrence,

distribution, and characteristics of

aquifers in the Region. Most surficial

or unconsolidated aquifers are formed

by deposition of sand and gravel in

moving water under a fluvial or, if by

moving water during glacial times, a

glaciofluvial environment related to

the last period of glaciation. Glaciofluvial

sand and gravel aquifers formed

during ice advance tend to be overlain

by till or glaciolacustrine clay and

silt, and are lithologically confined.

Glaciofluvial sand and gravel aquifers

formed during the melting of the

Figure 2a. Average monthly precipitation at Nanaimo (coastal setting: the blue bars represent

rainfall and the grey bars represent snowfall). The mean annual precipitation at Nanaimo

is 1163 mm. Also plotted (dark blue line) is the average monthly groundwater level from

Observation Well No. 228. Groundwater level in the aquifer is recharged by rain falling during

the fall and winter months (November to February).

Figure 2b. Average monthly precipitation at Cranbrook (interior setting: the blue bars

represent rainfall and the grey bars represent snowfall). The mean annual precipitation at

Cranbrook is 411 mm. Also plotted (dark blue line) is the average monthly groundwater level

from Observation Well No. 291. Groundwater level in the aquifer is recharged, not from the

relatively high precipitation in May–June, but rather from snowmelt from the preceding winter

months (November to March).

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Precipitation (mm)

Groundwater level (m)

OW 228

0

40

80

120

160

200 3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Precipitation (mm)

Groundwater level (m)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

11

12

13

14

9

OW 291

12 Streamline

Watershed Management Bulletin Vol. 13/No. 1 Fall 2009

Continued from page 11

ice are commonly unconfined. The

bedrock geology of the Cordillera is

extremely varied and complex due

to the Region’s geologic, tectonic,

and volcanic history. Holland (1976)

generalized the bedrock geology of

the Region into six main bedrock

types:

1. intrusive igneous rocks;

2. flat-lying lava, and some

sedimentary rocks;

3. flat or gently dipping sedimentary

rocks;

4. folded sedimentary rocks;

5. folded and faulted volcanic and

sedimentary rocks; and

6. foliated metamorphic rocks of

various ages.

Despite the presence of different

types of bedrock in the Cordillera,

bedrock permeability exists mostly

as a result of development of

fractures or faults from tectonic

forces or, in limestone, from

development of dissolution cavities

(karst). In the Cordillera, fractures

and faults developed in igneous

intrusive, foliated metamorphic,

and folded and faulted volcanic

and sedimentary rocks, give these

types of rocks sufficient secondary

permeability to form aquifers. The

permeability, however, is often

anisotropic

1 because the fractures or

faults are discrete and have specific

orientations in the bedrock. The

porosity and

storativity 2 of fractured

or faulted bedrock are also very low

(e.g., porosity of less than a few

percent). Extensive areas of central

British Columbia are underlain by

relatively unaltered, flat-lying lava

of Tertiary age (e.g., the Cariboo-

Chilcotin area). These are mostly

basalts and individual flows that

can be hundreds of metres thick.

This lava forms an important aquifer

because groundwater typically

occurs in joints, and in fractured and

weathered contact zones between

the lava flows.

The Province of British Columbia

and the Canadian Government

(through the Geological Survey of

Canada and Environment Canada)

have conducted groundwater studies

in the Region since the 1950s. The

Province of British Columbia has

also been mapping and classifying

developed aquifers in the Region

since 1994 (for background on the

BC Aquifer Classification System, see

adjacent sidebar and Berardinucci

and Ronneseth 2002). This work, and

the resulting inventory, has enabled

the identification of aquifer types

within the Region and improved

our understanding of their general

hydrogeologic characteristics.

Major Aquifer Types in

the Canadian Cordillera

Hydrogeologic Region

In the Cordillera Hydrogeologic

Region, aquifers generally fall into the

following six categories (refer also to

Figures 3a and 3b).

Unconsolidated Sand and

Gravel Aquifers

1.

Unconfined 3 fluvial or glaciofluvial

aquifers along river or stream

valleys

a. Aquifers along major higherorder

rivers, where the potential

of hydraulic connection with

the river exists,

b. Aquifers along moderate-order

rivers, where the potential of

hydraulic connection with the

river exists, or

c. Aquifers along lower-order

(< 3–4) streams in confined

valleys, where aquifer thickness

and lateral extent are more

limited

2. Unconfined deltaic aquifers

3. Unconfined alluvial fan or colluvial

aquifers

4. Aquifers of glacial or pre-glacial

origin

a. Unconfined glaciofluvial

outwash or ice contact aquifers,

b.

Confined 4 aquifers of glacial or

pre-glacial origin, or

Continued on page 14

c. Confined aquifers associated

with glaciomarine environments

Bedrock Aquifers

5. Sedimentary rock aquifers

a. Fractured sedimentary bedrock

aquifers, or

b. Karstic limestone aquifers

6. Crystalline rock aquifers

a. Flat-lying or gently-dipping

volcanic flow rock aquifers, or

b. Crystalline granitic,

metamorphic, metasedimentary,

meta-volcanic,

and volcanic rock aquifers

The categories of aquifer types are

based on geologic and hydrologic

properties, as well as on practical

considerations, such as data

availability. The main geologic

factors are the origin and type of the

geologic deposit that comprise an

aquifer (e.g., sand and gravel aquifer

forming a delta at the mouth of a

river or a plutonic granitic fractured

bedrock aquifer). The origin and type

of geologic deposit often governs an

aquifer’s hydraulic properties, such

as the nature of the porous medium

(porous sand and gravel, or fractured

bedrock) and ability to transmit and

store water. Another consideration is

the hydraulic connection between an

aquifer and a river, stream, or lake.

A direct hydraulic connection can

be advantageous for potential well

yields because pumping could induce

infiltration of surface water into those

aquifers. A practical consideration,

particularly for unconsolidated

aquifers buried at depth, is that it is

often difficult to identify the origin

of these buried unconsolidated sand

and gravel aquifers based on very

limited well record data. Buried

unconsolidated sand and gravel

aquifers are grouped into confined,

unconsolidated sand and gravel

aquifers of glacial or pre-glacial

origin (Type 4b). Descriptions of the

aquifer types are presented directly

below; many of the aquifer types are

illustrated in Figures 3a and 3b, which

represent aquifers in a coastal and

interior setting, respectively.

Streamline

Watershed Management Bulletin Vol. 13/No. 1 Fall 2009 13

T

he British Columbia Aquifer Classification System was developed in 1994

(Kreye and Wei 1994). Its objective was to interpret raw data (primarily well

records and geologic mapping) to identify and classify aquifers, and thus:

provide a framework to direct detailed aquifer mapping and characterization;

provide a method of screening and prioritizing management, protection,

and remedial efforts on a provincial, regional, and local level;

identify the level of management and protection an aquifer requires;

build an inventory of the aquifers in the province; and

increase public knowledge and understanding of their local aquifer.

The aquifer classification system has two main components (Figure A-1):

a. classification component

b. ranking value component

The

classification component classifies an aquifer on the basis its level

of development and its vulnerability to contamination. The classification

component categorizes an aquifer based on its current level of groundwater

development and vulnerability to contamination (categories A, B, and C for

high, moderate, and low vulnerability, respectively). The level of development

(categories I, II, and III for high, moderate, and light development, respectively)

compares the amount of groundwater withdrawn from an aquifer (demand)

to the aquifer’s inferred ability to supply groundwater for use (productivity).

The level of vulnerability (categories I, II, and III for high, moderate, and low

vulnerability, respectively) of an aquifer is based on whether or not an aquifer is

confined.

The combination of the three development and three vulnerability categories

results in nine aquifer classes. The nine aquifer classes have an implied priority

from a general management and protection standpoint, from IIIC, which is the

lowest priority, to IA, which is the highest (Figure A-2).

The

ranking value component assigns a number value to indicate the relative

importance of an aquifer. Assigned values are derived from the following

criteria:

1. aquifer productivity;

2. aquifer vulnerability to surface contamination;

3. aquifer area or size;

4. demand on the resource;

5. type of groundwater use; and known documented

groundwater concerns related to:

6. quality; and

7. quantity.

The ranking value is determined by summing the points for each criterion

(Figure A-3): the lowest ranking value possible is 5, and the highest ranking

value possible is 21. Generally, the aquifer with the greater ranking value has

the greater priority. Figure A-3 shows the ranking values applied for each

criterion.

The classification and ranking value components are determined for the aquifer

as a whole, and not for parts of aquifers.

To promote the appropriate use of the aquifer classification system, a guidance

document was produced to assist users in interpreting and using the aquifer

maps. This document can be found at:

http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wsd/plan_protect_

sustain/groundwater/aquifers/reports/aquifer_maps.pdf

The aquifer maps and other hydrological information are also available online

at:

http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wsd/data_searches/wrbc/index.html

The BC Aquifer Classification System

Figure A-1. The British Columbia Aquifer

Classification System (Source: Rivera, in press;

reproduced with permission of the Geological

Survey of Canada).

Figure A-2. Aquifer classes (Source: Rivera,

in press; reproduced with permission of the

Geological Survey of Canada).

Figure A-3. Criteria and points for aquifer

ranking value (Source: Rivera, in press;

reproduced with permission of the Geological

Survey of Canada).

14 Streamline

Watershed Management Bulletin Vol. 13/No. 1 Fall 2009

Type 1 –

This category covers sand

and gravel aquifers that are generally

shallow, unconfined, and occur

along river or stream valleys. Often

both fluvial and glaciofluvial sand

and gravel deposits form an aquifer

along the river or stream valley

bottom. Therefore, shallow sand and

gravel aquifers underlying river or

stream valleys—whether of fluvial or

glaciofluvial origin—are categorized

as the same general aquifer type. This

category is further subdivided into

the following three sub-categories.

Type 1a – Aquifers found along

major higher-order rivers with

potential hydraulic connection to

the river. These rivers are generally

of low gradient and the depositional

energy is relatively low to

cause deposition of mostly sand,

silt, some clay, and some gravel

(e.g., the Chilliwack-Rosedale

aquifer along the Fraser River near

the City of Chilliwack).

Type 1b – Unconfined sand and

gravel aquifers found along

moderate-order rivers with

potential hydraulic connection to

the river. These rivers have higher

gradients compared to rivers of

higher stream orders and the

depositional energy is relatively

high to cause deposition of mostly

sand and gravel (e.g., the fluvial

sand and gravel deposit along

the Cowichan River on the east

coast of Vancouver Island near the

community of Duncan; the fluvial

and terraced glaciofluvial sand and

gravel deposits along the Kettle

River at the Southern Interior

community of Grand Forks).

Type 1c – Sand and gravel aquifers

found along lower-order (< 3–4)

streams in confined valleys with

floodplains of limited lateral

extent, where aquifer thickness

and size are more limited (e.g.,

fluvial or glaciofluvial deposits

along a mountain stream).

Type 2 –

This category covers sand

and gravel aquifers that are shallow,

unconfined, and which form deltas

Figure 3b. Schematic diagram showing some of the different types of aquifers in the Region

in an interior setting (Source: Rivera, in press; reproduced with permission of the Geological

Survey of Canada).

Continued from page 12

Figure 3a. Schematic diagram showing some of the different types of aquifers in the Region

in a coastal setting (Source: Rivera, in press; reproduced with permission of the Geological

Survey of Canada).

at the mouth of rivers and streams

(e.g., the Scotch Creek aquifer at

Shuswap Lake). Older deltas buried at

depth below till, glaciolacustrine, or

glaciomarine deposits have not been

included here because it is generally

difficult to identify buried sand and

gravel as deltas based on limited

data. These buried aquifers would be

categorized under sand and gravel

aquifers of glacial or pre-glacial origin

(i.e., aquifer Type 4b).

Type 3 –

This category covers sand

and gravel aquifers that form alluvial

fans or are of colluvial origin near the

land surface. As with Type 2 aquifers,

this category excludes older alluvial or

colluvial aquifers buried at depth. The

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Watershed Management Bulletin Vol. 13/No. 1 Fall 2009 15

Vedder River Fan aquifer at the City

of Chilliwack is an example of this

type of aquifer.

Type 4 –

This category covers known

glaciofluvial sand and gravel aquifers,

as well as other sand and gravel

aquifers identified in well records

as occurring at depth, underneath

till or glaciolacustrine deposits, and

glaciomarine sand, sand and gravel

aquifers. This category is further

subdivided into the following three

sub-categories.

Type 4a – Unconfined glaciofluvial

outwash or ice contact sand

and gravel aquifers, generally

formed near or at the end of

the last period of glaciation. The

Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer is

perhaps the most well-known and

studied aquifer of this type in the

Cordillera Region.

Type 4b – Confined sand and

gravel aquifers underneath till,

in between till layers, or

underlying glaciolacustrine

deposits. The Quadra Sand,

which occurs in the Georgia

Depression on the east coast of

Vancouver Island and along the

southern mainland coast, is an

excellent example of a confined

glaciofluvial sand and gravel

aquifer consisting of sand and

gravel deposited as the glacier

advanced south along the Georgia

Depression. Other confined

glaciofluvial sand and gravel

aquifers occur between till layers,

which is indicative of deposition

during glaciation. Still other

confined sand and gravel aquifers

may be fluvial, alluvial, or colluvial

deposits from a time prior to

glaciation (and therefore lie

underneath till or glaciolacustrine

deposits). Unless a confined sand

and gravel aquifer has been well

studied, it is often difficult to

determine its geologic origin and

geomorphology based on limited

data. Therefore, any waterbearing

sand and gravel occurring

underneath till, in between till

layers, or under glaciolacustrine

deposits is included in this

sub-category.

Type 4c – Sand and gravel aquifers

that occur underneath known

sand, silt, and clay deposited

under a marine environment near

the coast. Most of the few known

aquifers in this category occur

in the deep marine sediments at

depth in low-lying areas in the

Fraser Lowland, in Surrey and

Langley, east of Vancouver.

Type 5 –

This category is further

subdivided into two sub-categories:

(a) fractured sedimentary rocks

and (b) karstic limestone rocks.

The Nanaimo Group of fractured

and faulted sedimentary rocks in

the Gulf Islands and east coast of

Vancouver Island is a classic example

of the former sub-category. The

limestone formations in the Rocky

Mountains are an example of the

latter sub-category. For fractured

sedimentary rocks, groundwater

flow occurs mostly along joints and

in fractures and faults. Although

this classification may also apply

to karstic limestone, the major

difference is that groundwater may

flow in open dissolution channels

and large cavities in karstic limestone

aquifers.

Type 6 –

This category is subdivided

into two sub-categories: (a) flatlying

to gently dipping volcanic flow

aquifers and (b) fractured crystalline

rocks. Groundwater flow in flat-lying

to gently dipping volcanic rocks can

be through joints and fractures, but

also in broken, weathered zones

between flows. The large volcanic

flow bedrock aquifer in the Central

Interior of British Columbia near

70-Mile House is an example of this

type of aquifer.

Groundwater flow in fractured

crystalline rocks is mostly along

joints, fractures, and faults. This

sub-category includes igneous

intrusive or metamorphic rocks

(such as the fractured granodiorite

aquifer underlying the Saanich

Peninsula, north of Victoria). The

meta-sedimentary, older volcanic,

and meta-volcanic rocks are most

similar in hydrogeological properties

to granitic and metamorphic rocks

and, therefore, have been included

in this sub-category.

General Aquifer

Characteristics

A summary of some of the

characteristics for each category or

sub-category of aquifer is presented

in Table 1, including size, reported

well depths and yields, representative

transmissivity

5 values, and potential

hydraulic connection to surface

water. The summary information in

Table 1 was compiled from available

well records, attribute data associated

with the classified aquifers, and

available groundwater reports.

Generally, sand and gravel aquifers

(Types 1–4) are of limited size (<

1 km

2 to over 100 km2, with average

sizes of a few to 10s of square

kilometres). Their limited size reflects

the variable topography and relief

of the Canadian Cordillera Hydrogeologic

Region. Bedrock aquifers can

be larger, but even so, aquifers in the

Cordillera are not typically considered

“regional” aquifers.

Table 1 also shows that unconfined

sand and gravel aquifers (Types 1,

2, 3, and 4a) are generally shallower

(inferred from the well depth) than

confined sand and gravel aquifers

(Types 4b and 4c) and bedrock

aquifers (Types 5 and 6). The

shallower, unconfined sand and

gravel aquifers (Types 1, 2, 3, and

4a) are considered highly vulnerable

to contamination whereas the

generally deeper, confined sand and

gravel aquifers (Type 4b and 4c)

are considered to have a moderate

to low vulnerability. In the Region,

widespread nitrate contamination

from human activities is found in

unconsolidated, unconfined aquifers

(Types 1b, 2, 4a) where intense

agricultural activity occurs or a high

density of on-site sewerage systems

and shallow water tables are present;

these are the most vulnerable aquifers.

Continued on page 17

16 Streamline

Watershed Management Bulletin Vol. 13/No. 1 Fall 2009

Table 1. Summary of hydrogeologic characteristics of the major aquifer system types in the Cordillera

Hydrogeologic Region (Source: Rivera in press; reproduced with permission of the Geological Survey of Canada).

Aquifer type

Range;

average

size (km

2)

Average

range;

average

median

well depths

(m)

Average

range;

average

median

well yields

(L/s)

Range;

geometric

mean

transmissivity

(m

2/d)

Hydraulic

connections

with surface

water?

Examples of aquifer types

1. Unconfined aquifers of fluvial or glaciofluvial origin along river valley bottoms

a. Aquifers along

higher-order rivers

< 1–140;

27

12–83;

23

2–17;

3

350–22 000;

4500

Common

Agassiz, Chilliwack-

Rosedale

b. Aquifers along

moderate-order rivers

< 1–120;

15

11–53;

22

2–41;

6

1–36 000;

1300

Common

Grand Forks, Duncan,

Chemainus, Nechako,

Merritt

c. Aquifers along

lower-order streams

< 1–23;

7

9–43;

19

1–22;

4

160–240;

200 (based on

two values)

Cache Creek, Little Fort

2. Unconfined deltaic

aquifers

< 1–19;

4

5–27;

12

2–15;

6

960–2390;

1500

Common Scotch Creek near Chase

3. Unconfined

alluvial, colluvial fan

aquifers

< 1–54;

5

13–47;

24

2–23;

4

25–5600;

710

Common

in aquifers

adjacent to

surface water

Vedder River Fan at

Chilliwack

4. Aquifers of glacial or pre-glacial origin

a. Unconfined glaciofluvial

aquifers

< 1–90;

8

12–59;

24

1–22;

3

2–89 000;

690

Common

in aquifers

adjacent to

surface water

Abbotsford, Langley,

Hopington

b. Confined glacial or

pre-glacial aquifers

< 1–330;

13

20–83;

39

0.8–12;

2

1–120 000;

250

Quadra Sand aquifers

in the Georgia Basin,

Okanagan and Coldstream

valleys

c. Confined glaciomarine

aquifers

2–190; 32

23–180;

61

0.1–14;

0.6

45–410;

150

Limited

Nicomekl-Serpentine in

Surrey and Langley

5. Sedimentary rock aquifers

a. Fractured

sedimentary rock

aquifers

< 1–700;

24

22–140;

56

0.1–3;

0.3

0.1–480;

4

Limited

Nanaimo Group aquifers

in the Gulf Islands and east

coast of Vancouver Island

b. Karstic aquifers

2–36;

11

35–130;

75

0.1–1;

0.3

N/A

Unknown,

but possible

Limestone aquifers in the

Central Canadian Rockies,

Sorrento, Fort St. James

6. Crystalline rock aquifers

a. Flat-lying volcanic

flow aquifers

< 1–6500;

420

21–130;

62

0.1–3;

0.3

11–47;

23 (based on

three values)

Limited

Aquifer classification #124

around 70 Mile House

b. Fractured

igneous intrusive,

metamorphic,

fractured volcanic, or

metavolcanic aquifers

< 1–540;

31

28–150;

71

0.1–5;

0.4

0.2–400;

9

Limited

Saanich granodiorite,

granitic aquifers along

Sunshine Coast, metabasalt

aquifer at Metchosin near

Victoria

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Watershed Management Bulletin Vol. 13/No. 1 Fall 2009 17

 

Although some nitrate is also

found in confined unconsolidated

aquifers (Type 4b), windows may

be present in the confining layers

in those aquifers; nitrate found in

Type 4b aquifers is usually isolated

or localized. The vulnerability of

bedrock aquifers (Types 5 and 6) in

the Region is variable and depends

to a large degree

on the nature

and thickness

of overlying

unconsolidated

materials.

Shallow, unconfined

sand and

gravel aquifers are

also expected to

have the greatest

potential of

hydraulic connection

to surface

water. Public water supply wells

completed into shallow Type 1, 2,

and 3 aquifers have the potential to

draw in surface water during pumping

and may require an assessment

to determine whether disinfection

of the well water is required before

distribution and use.

The productivity of aquifers, as

reflected by the reported well yield

and transmissivity, is generally

greater for sand and gravel aquifers

than bedrock aquifers. Despite their

limited size, the sand and gravel

aquifers in the Cordillera are actually

some of the most productive in

Canada (e.g., well yields of up to

several 10s of litres per second and

transmissivity values of up to 10s of

thousands of square metres per day).

The productivity of bedrock aquifers

is generally lower, but bedrock can

also be a viable source of domestic

water supply where sand and gravel

aquifers are not present.

Conclusions

Knowledge of local aquifer

characteristics is key to managing

the local groundwater resource.

Continued from page 15

To support local management and

protection of groundwater, however,

it may not be practical to conduct

detailed aquifer characterization

studies for each of the more than

900 developed aquifers known to

exist in the Canadian Cordillera

Hydrogeologic Region. Therefore, if

an aquifer’s type can be categorized

through simpler assessment

techniques such as

interpretation of

local well records

and surficial and

bedrock geologic

mapping, then it

may be possible

to ascertain

some general

characteristics of the

local aquifer (e.g.,

local extent, shallow

or deep, expected

productivity,

potential connection

to surface water, confined/

unconfined) based on similar types

of aquifers studied elsewhere.

Understanding and categorizing a

local aquifer’s general characteristics

may allow decision makers to start

developing broad management and

protection strategies. For example, it

may be important for a drinking water

officer to recognize the need to assess

the potential connection between

surface water and groundwater and

to establish disinfection requirements

for the operation of a public water

supply well that is drilled into a Type

1, 2, or 3 aquifer. Where Type 1,

2, 3, and 4a aquifers exist and are

relied upon as a water supply source,

a local government may want to

consider the use of more detailed

vulnerability mapping to identify

areas of high vulnerability or high

risk to aid in planning or zoning land

use. Finally, local governments may

want to consider establishing more

stringent pumping test requirements

under water servicing by-laws for

new subdivision developments where

the source of water supply is from

a fractured rock aquifer (Type 5b or

Type 6 aquifer).

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the

Geological Survey of Canada and BC

Ministry of Environment. This article

is based on Chapter 9 (Wei et al., in

press) from the Geological Survey

of Canada’s,

Groundwater Resources

in Canada

(Rivera, in press). All

figures and tables in this article are

reproduced with permission of the

Geological Survey of Canada.

The authors would also like to

acknowledge the constructive

comments of T. Redding and two

anonymous reviewers.

Endnotes

1

Anisotropic means physical

properties of an aquifer or a

geologic formation, such as

permeability, is not the same in

all directions.

2

Storativity means the amount

of water an aquifer will release

or yield from its pores when the

groundwater level is lowered as,

for example, during pumping.

3

Unconfined means the aquifer is

not overlain by a low permeable

geological formation or deposit,

such as clay or till

4

Confined means the aquifer is

overlain by a low permeable

geological formation or deposit,

such as clay or till.

5

Transmissivity is the ability of an

aquifer to transmit groundwater

and is a product of the aquifer’s

hydraulic conductivity and

thickness.

For further information, contact:

Mike Wei

BC Ministry of Environment,

Victoria, BC

Tel: (250) 356-5062

Email: Mike.Wei@gov.bc.ca

Diana Allen

Simon Fraser University

Email: dallen@sfu.ca

Alan Kohut

Hy-Geo Consulting

Email: apkohut@telus.net

Continued on page 18

Understanding and

categorizing a local

aquifer’s general

characteristics may

allow decision makers

to start developing

broad management and

protection strategies.

18 Streamline

Watershed Management Bulletin Vol. 13/No. 1 Fall 2009

Steve Grasby

Geological Survey of Canada

Email: Steve.Grasby@nrcan-rncan.gc.ca

Kevin Ronneseth

BC Ministry of Environment

Email: Kevin.Ronneseth@gov.bc.ca

Bob Turner

Geological Survey of Canada

Email: Bob.Turner@nrcan-rncan.gc.ca

References

Berardinucci, J. and K. Ronneseth. 2002.

Guide to using the BC aquifer classification

maps for the protection

and management of groundwater.

BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air

Protection, Victoria, BC.

Halstead, E.C. 1967. Cordilleran

Hydrogeological Region.

In

Groundwater in Canada. I.C.

Brown (editor). Geological Survey

of Canada, Ottawa, ON. Economic

Geology Report No. 24, Chapter 7.

Holland, S.S. 1976. Landforms of British

Columbia: A physiographic outline.

BC Department of Mines and

Petroleum Resources, Victoria, BC.

Bulletin No. 48.

Kreye, R. and M. Wei. 1994. A proposed

aquifer classification system for

groundwater management in

British Columbia. BC Ministry of

Environment, Lands and Parks,

Water Management Division,

Hydrology Branch, Groundwater

Section, Victoria, BC.

http://www.env.gov.

bc.ca/wsd/plan_protect_sustain/

groundwater/aquifers/

Aq_Classification/

(Accessed

August 2009).

Rivera, A. (editor). [2009]. Groundwater

resources in Canada. Geological

Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

In press.

Sharpe, D., D.R. Russell, H.A.J. Dyke, S.

Grasby, Y. Michaud, M.M. Savard,

M. Wei, and P. Wozniak. [2009].

In

Groundwater resources in Canada.

A. Rivera (editor). Geological

Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Chapter 8. In press.

Wei, M., D.M. Allen, S.E. Grasby, A.P.

Kohut, and K. Ronneseth. [2009].

Cordilleran Hydrogeological

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In Groundwater resources

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Geological Survey of Canada,

Ottawa, ON. Chapter 9. In press.

Continued from page 17